James Henry Fetzer (born December 6, 1940) is a philosopher of science and conspiracy theorist. Since the late 1970s, Fetzer has worked on assessing and clarifying the forms and foundations of scientific explanation, probability in science, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of cognitive science, especially artificial intelligence and computer science.

In the early 1990s, Fetzer began promoting John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories then later 9/11 conspiracy theories, Holocaust denial and conspiracy theories regarding the 2002 death of Senator Paul Wellstone. He cofounded Scholars for 9/11 Truth in 2005, and claims that the United States government and the Israeli government are involved in these and other conspiracies.

Interested in alleged government conspiracies since the 1963 assassination of US President John F. Kennedy, Fetzer became "a familiar and controversial figure in the JFK research community". With Don "Four Arrows" Jacobs, Fetzer said the 2002 airplane crash that killed US Senator Paul Wellstone had been an assassination.

Fetzer alleged the 9/11 attacks were treason and called for military overthrow of the President George W. Bush, a call that hurt his credibility. In 2005, with Steven E. Jones, Fetzer co-founded Scholars for 9/11 Truth. Fetzer has asserted that the World Trade Center buildings collapsed by controlled demolitions or by high-tech weaponry, although his speculations have drawn further critics.

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